What to Eat Before Running Any Distance (& What Not to Eat)

Not sure what you should eat before heading out on a run? Read on for some solid tips of what to eat before running, no matter the distance!

smoothie and fruit

We runners love to talk about food—what to eat during a run, and how to refuel after a run. But what about before the run? With a few simple strategies, you can optimize your fueling and nutrition before you even step out the door. These tips will also help you minimize the risk of the dreaded GI issues or bonking halfway through your run.

Below, we’ll show you exactly what to eat before running any distance—and what not to eat before running, too.

Should You Eat Before a Run?

First, let’s get this question out in the clear: “Should you eat before a run?”

Well, it depends.

Did you just wake up and have a growling, empty stomach? In that case, yes, you should before a run.

Are you lining up for a mid-day 5K? Most of the time, eating something isn’t going to help you—but eating the wrong thing could definitely hurt you.

It all depends on your distance, goals, and body needs. Some people can run without eating too much, while others like to have a steady drip of calories. Neither is better than the other.

Should You Eat Before or After a Run?


Your body needs fuel to run, and it also needs fuel for recovery. Make food a regular part of your preparation and recovery phases.

Getting in those calories, fats, carbs, and proteins will give your body the energy it needs to do its job. It can’t propel you faster without food, and it also can’t heal the damage done (and help your body grow stronger) without nutrients.

Eat before and after a run for maximum efficiency.

What to Eat Before Running: All Distances

As you read through the following tips, do keep in mind that every runner is different. What works for your running buddy may not be ideal for you. Some trial and error may be required to figure out what works best for you!

That said, based on you and your desired distance, here are a few things to eat before a run.

What to Eat Before Running a 5K

5K distances don’t usually require additional fueling. Anything you eat isn’t likely to give you actual energy, but it can settle your stomach.

If you feel like you need to eat something before running a 5K, then we recommend the following:

  • Toast
  • Bagel
  • Banana
  • Gel
  • Coffee
  • Clif Bar

What Not to Eat Before Running a Mile, 5K, or 10K

Keep meals minimal before short or intense runs.

If you’re lacing up to get in a shorter training session, your fueling strategy is pretty simple. Whether you’ve got a short run or a handful of intervals on the docket, you won’t need to eat much, if anything, before starting.

what to eat before running a 5k

Since this workout will last less than an hour, your body will typically already have all the energy it needs to put in the work. Where does this energy come from? Glycogen is the main fuel source for your body in this case. This is basically a stash of sugar, or glucose, that is stored in your muscles and liver. As you exercise, your body draws on this energy to keep the engine running.

Having sufficient glycogen stores is one reason why it’s important for runners to get adequate amounts of high-quality complex carbs in their diets on a regular basis. We’re not advocating for going on a pasta or French bread binge. Rather, include pre-run foods like oats, quinoa, veggies, and fruits in your diet to keep your muscles ready to go.

Your meals from the day before, or whatever you’ve eaten for breakfast or lunch will have topped off your glycogen stores, so there’s not much need to supplement with food pre-workout.

However, if you run first thing in the morning and prefer to have a little something in your stomach, then try something simple like a banana or a few bites of yogurt. It won’t be so much that you feel full or heavy, but it will prevent you from having to deal with a growling stomach while getting warmed up!

What to Eat Before a Track Meet or Cross Country Race

Track races and cross-country races are typically short, so you won’t need much to see you through to the finish line. Try not to eat anything that’ll make you feel bloated or full.

If you need a little something-something, try a light pre-run snack like a banana—and eat it at least 30 minutes before you line up. Here are some great examples of what to eat before a track meet or cross country race:

  1. Banana: A great source of simple carbs and potassium, helping to prevent cramps.
  2. Energy Gel: Specifically designed for athletes, these gels are made to be absorbed quickly and provide a fast energy boost.
  3. A Few Dates: Natural sugars and easy to digest, providing quick energy.
  4. Small Sports Drink: Can help top up your energy levels and keep you hydrated.
  5. Applesauce or a Fruit Puree Pouch: Easy on the stomach and provides quick, natural sugars.
  6. Small Rice Cake with Honey: Light and simple, offering quick-release energy without heaviness.
  7. A handful of Pretzels: Simple carbs with a touch of salt to help replace lost sodium.
  8. A Small Piece of White Toast with Jam: Simple, fast-digesting carbs.

When choosing your pre-race snack, consider your personal tolerance and experience with different foods during training. What works well for one athlete might not suit another, so it’s beneficial to test these snacks during training sessions before the actual race day.

What to Eat Before Running in the Morning

Should you eat before a morning run? If your belly feels empty before a short morning workout, you might want to eat a little something—even if it doesn’t necessarily give you any fuel for the run.

Try something light and high on the GI scale—this will make it quick to digest and not sit in your stomach like a rock. Here are some examples of light, high-GI foods that are suitable to eat before a short morning run:

  1. White Bread Toast: Easy to digest and provides a quick source of energy. You can top it with a thin layer of jam or honey for extra quick-releasing sugars.
  2. Ripe Banana: Bananas are not only high in carbohydrates but also provide potassium, which can help prevent muscle cramps.
  3. Rice Cakes: They are light and easy on the stomach, making them a great quick-energy source.
  4. Corn Flakes or Puffed Rice Cereal: These cereals are high on the GI scale and can be eaten with a splash of milk or a dairy-free alternative to keep it light.
  5. Watermelon: It's hydrating and has a high GI, making it perfect for a quick pre-run snack, plus it won't sit heavily in your stomach.
  6. Dates or Dried Fruit: High in sugar and easy to digest, providing a rapid energy boost.
  7. Sports Drinks or Energy Gels: Formulated to provide quick energy, they can be an option if you really can't stomach solid food.
  8. Pretzels or Salted Crackers: Simple carbohydrates that are easy to digest, with a bit of salt to help replace any sodium you might lose through sweat.

Remember, even though these foods are quick to digest, it's still a good idea to wait at least 30 minutes before running to minimize any discomfort. Everyone's digestive system is different, so it might take a bit of experimenting to find what works best for you.

What to Eat Before Running a Half-Marathon.

Experiment to find your best meal for medium-length runs.

For runs between 60 to 90 minutes, you’re in a bit of a gray area. And that’s right where 13.1 miles tend to sit, making it difficult to know what to eat before a half marathon.

This is where that “one size fits all” mentality really doesn’t cut it. For some runners, they may prefer to head out on an empty stomach. Other runners know they’ll get hungry halfway through their run, and prefer a pre-run snack.

what to eat before running a half marathon

The intensity of the workout or run is another consideration. If you’re going out for a lower intensity 90-minute run, the meal you ate a couple of hours ago might be enough to carry you through. If that same 90-minute run will include some intense hill repeats or tempo repeats, then some simple carbs beforehand might be a good idea to maintain your energy level.

A banana, some dates, or a smoothie are some great ideas for you in that case. If you’re running soon after waking up, try putting some peanut butter on that banana for some extra calories and staying power. Add a small handful of almonds to the dates and you’ve got a great pre-run snack.

What to Eat Before Running a Marathon

Long runs require pre-fueling. Here’s what to eat before a long run.

This is where a runner has a ton of options for their pre-run fueling! For runs longer than that 90-minute mark, you’ll definitely want to eat something beforehand. Your time to departure will affect your decision.

what to eat before running a marathon

Here’s what to eat before a long run (and during it):

  • 2 hours before the run: Oatmeal, granola, avocado toast, a PB &J are all great choices.
  • 1 hour before the run: Something easy to digest like an energy bar should settle well. You could also include 8-12 ounces of a sports drink with electrolytes to make sure you’re properly hydrated.
  • 30 min or less before the run: Keep it basic here with simple sugars: fruits such as a banana, dates, or applesauce are favorite picks. If you have a favorite energy chew, this can give you a good pre-run boost.

In addition to eating before the run, you’ll also want to think about eating during the run. Remember those glycogen stores we talked about earlier? They won’t get you through the entirety of your run, especially if you’ll be out for a couple of hours or longer. You’ll need to supplement with additional calories during the run. To avoid hitting “the wall.

The general rule is that you’ll want to take in 30-90 grams of carbs/hour depending on effort. If you’re keeping the pace and intensity a bit lower, then you can get away with lower carb intake during that long run. If your route will include some big hill climbs, or you’ll be pushing the pace, you might fall on the higher end of that range.

Now, don’t worry about eating an entire pizza or box of pasta the day before a race. Sure, you’ll want to put some healthy carbs into your body, but you’ll want to be doing this the entire week leading up to the race—don’t wait until the night before your marathon to eat what you need.

What to Eat Before a Long Run?

Not sure what to eat before a long run?


Some runners prefer real food for those long-distance runs. Stand-bys include peanut butter pretzels, granola bars, boiled potatoes, and the ever-present banana. Other runners prefer easier-to-digest calories such as energy gels, chews, or a sports drink. What works for you and settles well in your stomach will vary from runner to runner.

Even among training runs, there will be days when your baggie of pretzels just isn’t cutting it, and you reach for the gel packet instead. Knowing what you can use for backup is just as important as the rest of your nutrition strategy.

Here's a list of food items and energy supplements that many runners find effective for sustaining their energy, along with some real-food options that might sit well and provide the needed calories for endurance:

  1. Peanut Butter Pretzels: A savory option that provides both salt to replace lost electrolytes and a mix of carbs and protein.
  2. Granola Bars: Choose ones with a balance of carbs and protein, and not too high in fiber to avoid digestive issues.
  3. Boiled Potatoes: Salted boiled potatoes are easy on the stomach for many and provide complex carbohydrates and potassium.
  4. Bananas: A favorite for their portability, ease of digestion, and balance of quick and complex carbohydrates.
  5. Energy Gels: Designed for endurance activities, they provide a concentrated source of fast-digesting carbs.
  6. Energy Chews: Similar to gels but in a chewable form, they offer a quick energy boost and often contain electrolytes.
  7. Sports Drink: Provides hydration, electrolytes, and carbohydrates in a quickly absorbable form.
  8. Dates or Other Dried Fruit: A natural and portable source of quick energy.
  9. Nut Butter Packets: Offer a mix of fats, protein, and carbs, with the bonus of being easily portable.
  10. Homemade Energy Bites: Made with ingredients like oats, honey, nut butter, and dried fruits for a balanced source of energy.
  11. Rice Cakes with Avocado or Nut Butter: For those who prefer real food and need something substantial yet easy to digest.
  12. Portable Soup or Broth: Especially in cooler weather, for those who prefer something savory and hydrating.

What to Eat the Night Before a Long Run or Race?

Depending on the length of your long run or race, you might not need to eat anything special the night before—just your normal nutrition.

However, if you’re planning on a run that’s longer than usual and it’s going to push your body’s limits, you might want to prep it the night before (and days before) with extra calories and carbohydrates.

Don’t Wait Until Race Day To Practice What To Eat Before Running

One of the biggest rules for race day: Don’t try anything new! This goes for new clothing and shoes just as it does for food and nutrition. By race day you’ll have practiced what works for you. Whether you’re in the camp that prefers an empty stomach before starting a run, or if you’re the type (like me!) that needs to eat a little something beforehand, stick with the tried and true answer for yourself.

Put your race in the same category of run as mentioned above. A 5k race could definitely be considered a short run. On the other hand, a half-marathon will be a 2+ hour effort and falls into the long run category. Eat early enough so your digestive system isn’t stressed with a full belly before your race starts, just as you practiced on your training runs.

What NOT To Eat Before Running Any Distance

Just as there are some great recommendations for the best options to eat before a run, there are similar recommendations of what to not eat before running.

what not to eat before running
  • Spicy foods: Salsa burps, anyone? Save the hot sauce for your post-run meal!
  • High-fat foods: These foods take longer to digest, and are more likely to sit in your stomach and result in a heavy feeling on the run.
  • High-fiber foods: Now isn’t the time to load up on a bean burrito, or you might regret it halfway through your run!

Check out this article on common nutrition mistakes to avoid making them yourself!

Experiment for yourself.

What not to eat before running can be personal—for example, a certain fruit might have a drastically different impact on you than on your friends.

Bonus Tip: Hydrate!

No matter the length of your training run, whether it’s a half-hour jog around the block or a 4-hour suffer-fest in the mountains, hydration is critically important for ALL runners. If you start off your run dehydrated, you’ll be fighting an uphill (pun intended!) battle during the run. You’re much better off getting and staying hydrated before you even put your shoes on.

a reuasable water bottle thermos

An easy way to remember to hydrate throughout the day is to aim for 4-6 glasses of water before 2pm, and another 4-6 glasses of water after 2pm.

Best Pre-Run Foods, Meals, and Snacks

Not sure what to eat before a run? Here are a few of our favorite recommendations.

Now, remember—these won’t work for everyone. Some people might not like a bowl of oatmeal before a run, and that’s just fine. Experiment and see what works best for you.

Best Pre-Run Foods and Snacks

  • Apple
  • Banana
  • Oats
  • Toast
  • Clif Bar
  • Crackers
  • Pretzels

You can use the same snacks you use in a run before your run. For example, if you like to use Gels or Tailwind during your race, don’t be afraid to snack on it 30 minutes before show time.

Our Best Pre-Run Snacks

While this isn’t a tried-and-true list for everyone, the TRE crew has its own list of best pre-run snacks. Give these a try:

  • Stroopwafel: This Dutch treat consists of two thin waffles with a syrup filling in the middle. It's compact and easy to carry, making it an excellent choice for runners needing a quick carbohydrate boost. The simple sugars in the syrup provide fast energy, while the waffle offers a bit more substance to keep hunger at bay.
  • Instant Oatmeal: A quick and easy source of complex carbohydrates. Instant oatmeal is convenient for runners who need sustained energy over longer distances. It's also easily digestible, especially if you stick with flavors that are lower in sugar and additives. You can customize it with a sprinkle of cinnamon or a handful of berries for extra flavor and nutrients.
  • Peanut Butter and Crackers: This snack combines complex carbs from the crackers with protein and healthy fats from the peanut butter. It’s a satisfying option that provides both immediate energy from the carbohydrates and longer-lasting fuel from the fats, making it a good choice for longer or more intense runs.
  • Gel: Energy gels are designed specifically for endurance activities. They provide a concentrated source of simple carbohydrates that are quickly absorbed, offering a rapid energy boost. Gels often contain added electrolytes to help replace what’s lost through sweat, making them particularly useful for hot weather runs or longer distances.
  • Bagel: A bagel is a dense source of carbohydrates, making it an excellent choice for pre-run fuel, especially for longer distances. Opt for a plain or whole-grain bagel to avoid added sugars. You can top it with a thin layer of cream cheese or peanut butter for a bit of protein, but be mindful not to add too much, as fats can slow down digestion.
  • Waffle: Similar to stroopwafels but typically larger and fluffier, waffles can be a comforting pre-run snack. Choose whole-grain waffles for more complex carbohydrates and fiber, which provide a steadier source of energy. Light toppings like a drizzle of maple syrup or a spread of almond butter can enhance the flavor while adding quick energy or a bit of protein and healthy fats.

When trying out these snacks, consider the timing of your snack in relation to your run, the intensity and duration of the run, and your personal digestive comfort. It’s always a good idea to experiment with different snacks and timings during your training runs to find what works best for you.

Best Pre-Run Meals

  • Scrambled egg whites on a bagel
  • Blueberries and jam with toast
  • Baked potatoes
  • Cooked pasta


Eat This, Not That Before a Run

Now that you know what to eat before running at various distances, it’s time to put it into action with a running plan.

We’ve got plenty of more resources for you! Check out all our nutrition videos for even more helpful hints from Coach Elizabeth, and come join our running community by downloading the mobile app!